Electronics begins when Thomas Edison found that electric current could flow in a vacuum. This discovery, has lead to
the vacuum valves, some years later.
For many years, the electronics, distinguish themselves because the electricity was using vacuum tubes or gas. After, is the solid state electronics with transistors and diodes in semi-conductor material, and many others devices that have been appearing. It's called electronic "elements" discrete. Transistors and valves, could be replaced and could also repair the circuits associated with them. This season, we had access to all components which constituted an electronic circuit. Today, all this changed with the emergence of so-called "Integrated Circuits" which are so called because they are made of diodes, transistors, capacitors and resistors, put a small "chip" of semiconductor material (usually silicon) to which we can not access. In this case, no there is more to replace or repair any "element" that is part of an "Integrated Circuit".
The "elements" that form an "Integrated Circuit", are placed together and are united physically the same chip semiconductors that have completely lost their individuality, thus to be "elements" as discretos.They are extremely small, which happened to talk about when we refer to microelectronics them.
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